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Ceremonial Pua Textile
Iban People, Sarawak, Borneo
circa 1930

length (including fringes): 226cm, width: 100cm

This pua comprises two hand-woven panels of machine-spun cotton hand-stitched together down the middle. The supplementary weft pattern comprises two
rows of multiple, large male figures (
antu) with exposed genitals and large headdresses and long, drop earrings, interspersed with human skulls - an allusion
to headhunting. Tumpal-like borders are at either end. It includes borders on either side: many
pua patterns were deemed to be potentially dangerous and so
the borders were necessary to contain that power. The use of bright, coloured imported yarn in the lateral edging, most probably bought from Chinese
traders, would have been a show of wealth. The ends of the textile are braided.

This textile belongs to a group of large blanket-like hangings known as
pua. Mostly, pua cloths are patterned with warp ikat patterns in earthy deep reds,
browns, beige and blue-black colours. The
pua are believed by the Iban to communicate with the spirit world and to protect individuals during times of danger
and crisis (Gittinger, 2005, p. 102).

Pua were used at various harvest-and life-cycle rituals known as gawai. Villagers would gather at a longhouse for several days of feasting during which the
gods were invoked to leave their heavenly abode and visit the earth. The
pua were hung about and near the longhouse to greet the arriving gods who would
take pleasure in seeing the large textiles. The gods would respond by bestowing blessings on the festival givers and attendees.
Pua could also be used to
create a temporary shrine to enclose ritual objects. Certain
puas might have been hoisted as a signal that a longhouse was in mourning, or hung to assist with
healing and sickness rituals.

Woman were responsible for weaving the
pua. But the task was a perilous one. The weaver was at the interface of the physical and spiritual worlds and the
supernatural powers potentially endangered the weaver and also empowered her patters.  According to Gittinger (2005, p. 105), a woman may receive
inspiration for a
pua pattern in a dream inspired by the spirits. She must follow such commands or risk severe physical or mental malaise. Those women
deemed to be the best weavers were honoured the most in the community for it was felt that their connections to the spirit world were the most intense.

The patterns on
pua cloths relate to their intended use. And generally, the older a cloth, the more sacred or 'powerful' it was considered to be. According to
Gittinger (2005, p. 102), 'Most Iban textiles challenge the eye. Kaleidescopic patterns hover just at the edge of comprehension. Crocodile, snake, and
anthropomorphic forms may emerge from the welter of patterning, but just as often there is a structured tangle of hooks and coils that defies labelling. This is
a language of design unique to the Iban of Sarawak and the Iban-related peoples of Kalimantan - the Kantu' and Mualang. It is a vocabulary to delight the
gods and to invite them and their blessings into this world.'

This textile is in excellent condition. There are no repairs and no insect damage.

Acquired in the UK, from the estate collection of Dr George Yuille Caldwell (1924-2016). Dr Caldwell, an English-born physician moved to Singapore in the
1950s, from where he built up a collection of mostly Borneo-related textiles and other ethnographica.

Gavin, T.,
The Women's Warpath: Iban Ritual Fabrics from Borneo, UCLA Fowler Museum of Cultural History, 1996.
Gittinger, M.,
Textiles for this World and Beyond: Treasures from Insular Southeast Asia, Scala, 2005.
Haddon, A.C., & L.E. Start,
Iban Sea Dayak Fabrics and their Patterns, Ruth Bean, 1982 (reprint of 1936 edition).
Heppell, M.,
et al, Iban Art: Sexual Selection and Severed Heads, C. Zwartenkot/Kit Publishers, 2005.

Inventory no.: 3834

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Two Iban girls before a backdrop of pua hangings.
A backdrop of more pua textiles.