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20 Hindu Temple Bronze Body Stamps (Chhapa)
Orissa & Bengal, India
18th & 19th centuries
length of the longest: 11.2cm, diameter of largest: 8cm
These twenty devotional stamps (chhapa), from Northeast India, are important for their variety and size. Some unusually large and complex stamps and others
with unusual shapes are included among the twenty. The larger examples include invocations in Bengali script (in reverse).
Each stamp bears either symbols or scripts related to a deity, usually Vishnu or Shiva.
And on the reverse, each has a supportive, bracing structure, typically cast as plaited bronze which terminates with a pierced finial through which bronze rings
were threaded thereby allowing a series of related stamps to be held together.
It is customary for many Vaishnavite, Shaivite and other sect adherents to mark the body with such stamps. The marks on the body provide a visual display of
the adherent’s devotion and also to transfer the beneficence of the deity to the wearer. According to Untracht (1997, p.25) the stamps are applied after the
devotee has undergone a purifying bath. A paste of white sandalwood and water is then prepared in the case of Vaishnavites or in the case of Shaivites a
paste of red sanders wood. (The stamps variously retain paste remnants.) The paste is then applied using the stamp to proscribed parts of the body such as
the forehead, cheeks, shoulders, forearms and stomach. The main Vaishnavite stamps are those associated with Vishnu – the conch, the lotu
Similar stamps are illustrated in Terlinden (1987, p. 268) and Utracht (1997, p. 26.)
Each stamp here has obvious age and excellent patina. An 18th and 19th century dating is based on the wear. They were acquired in the UK and most
probably came to the UK during colonial times. Overall, this is a fine collection that includes some rare shapes.
Skelton, R. & M. Francis (eds.), Arts of Bengal: The Heritage of Bangladesh and Eastern India, Trustees of the Whitechapel Gallery, 1979.
Terlinden, C., Mughal Silver Magnificence, Antalga, 1987.
Utracht, O., Traditional Jewelry of India, Thames & Hudson, 1997.
Provenance: UK art market
Inventory no.: 4366
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